|Name: William Kingdon Clifford||Find on Amazon India: Link|
|Nationality: British||Find on Amazon: Link|
We feel much happier and more secure when we think we know precisely what to do, no matter what happens, then when we have lost our way and do not know where to turn.
The danger to society is not merely that it should believe wrong things, though that is great enough; but that it should become credulous, and lose the habit of testing things and inquiring into them; for then it must sink back into savagery.
The harm which is done by credulity in a man is not confined to the fostering of a credulous character in others, and consequent support of false beliefs.
The rule which should guide us in such cases is simple and obvious enough: that the aggregate testimony of our neighbours is subject to the same conditions as the testimony of any one of them.
There is no scientific discoverer, no poet, no painter, no musician, who will not tell you that he found ready made his discovery or poem or picture – that it came to him from outside, and that he did not consciously create it from within.
This sense of power is the highest and best of pleasures when the belief on which it is founded is a true belief, and has been fairly earned by investigation.
To consider only one other such witness: the followers of the Buddha have at least as much right to appeal to individual and social experience in support of the authority of the Eastern saviour.
To sum up: it is wrong always, everywhere, and for anyone, to believe anything upon insufficient evidence.
Our lives our guided by that general conception of the course of things which has been created by society for social purposes.
When an action is once done, it is right or wrong for ever; no accidental failure of its good or evil fruits can possibly alter that.
To know all about anything is to know how to deal with it under all circumstances.
Every rustic who delivers in the village alehouse his slow, infrequent sentences, may help to kill or keep alive the fatal superstitions which clog his race.
We may always depend on it that algebra, which cannot be translated into good English and sound common sense, is bad algebra.
Nor is it that truly a belief at all which has not some influence upon the actions of him who holds it.
An atmosphere of beliefs and conceptions has been formed by the labours and struggles of our forefathers, which enables us to breathe amid the various and complex circumstances of our life.
He who truly believes that which prompts him to an action has looked upon the action to lust after it, he has committed it already in his heart.
If a belief is not realized immediately in open deeds, it is stored up for the guidance of the future.
If I steal money from any person, there may be no harm done from the mere transfer of possession; he may not feel the loss, or it may prevent him from using the money badly. But I cannot help doing this great wrong towards Man, that I make myself dishonest.
In like manner, if I let myself believe anything on insufficient evidence, there may be no great harm done by the mere belief; it may be true after all, or I may never have occasion to exhibit it in outward acts.
Into this, for good or ill, is woven every belief of every man who has speech of his fellows. A awful privilege, and an awful responsibility, that we should help to create the world in which posterity will live.
It is wrong always, everywhere, and for anyone, to believe anything upon insufficient evidence.
Namely, we have no right to believe a thing true because everybody says so unless there are good grounds for believing that some one person at least has the means of knowing what is true, and is speaking the truth so far as he knows it.
No simplicity of mind, no obscurity of station, can escape the universal duty of questioning all that we believe.
A little reflection will show us that every belief, even the simplest and most fundamental, goes beyond experience when regarded as a guide to our actions.